Information of disease and possible treatments

Anatomy of the Heart

The heart has two “sides.” and is made up of four chambers. The upper chambers are called the left and right atria, and the lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles A wall of muscle called the septum separates the eft and right atria and the left and right ventricles.

Heart’s Chambers and Valves

The four heart valves (tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral and aortic) open and close at just the right moment to keep the blood moving in the proper direction through the heart.

Blood circulation

It is helpful to visualize the heart functioning as two separate pumps, working in series; the right heart pump, and the left heart pump.

The right side of the heart accepts “used” blood that is returning from the tissues of the body, and pumps that blood into the lungs, where it is replenished with oxygen. The left side of the heart accepts replenished blood from the lungs, and then pumps that blood out to all the body’s organs.

The two atria (right and left) accept the blood returning to the heart (from the body’s tissues and from the lungs, respectively). At just the right moment, the right and left atria empty their accumulated blood into the right and left ventricles.

Any part of the heart can have a problem:

The muscle wall of the heart (myocardium).

The blood vessels supplying oxygen to the heart muscle (coronary arteries).

The valves between the heart’s four chambers.

The conducting system that helps the heart to beat regularly and at the right speed.

The covering of the heart (pericardium).

The different types of heart disease include:

  • Coronary heart disease CHD- eg, angina, acute coronary artery spasm, acute coronary syndrome.
  • Valvular heart disease
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Heart failure
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Infections – (eg, infective endocarditis).


  • some blood tests
  • Electrocardiogram
  • Echocardiogram

Left Heart Disease

Left-sided heart failure is the most common type of heart failure.

Right Heart Disease

A valve that is diseased or damaged can affect the flow of blood through the heart.

Heart Valves and Valve Disease

A valve that is diseased or damaged can affect the flow of blood through the heart.

Common Types of Valve Disease

Treatment Methods

Information of four treatment methods


This site is intended for healthcare professionals.
Are you a healthcare professional?